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What Are The Apps For Reading Marathi Literature?

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What Are The Apps For Reading Marathi Literature?

As already mentioned, “oral literature” is a contradiction in terms. That said, we can contrast the varying tendencies between literature which attempts to reflect an oral universe, culture and values versus writing which is dominantly visual and reflecting what is called “literate” culture. It is important to emphasize “tendencies” because what I am about to describe are not absolute features of any writing. Additionally, I would also defer to and recommend the most recognized authorities on this question. McLuhan, Ong and Havelock. Orality tends to emphasize collective and communal values; while visuality/literacy emphasizes the individual. McLuhan describes the individual who moves from oral culture to literacy saying. Nearly all the emotional and corporate family feeling is eliminated from his relationship with his social group. He is emotionally free to separate from the tribe and to become a civilized individual, a man of visual organization who has uniform attitudes, habits and rights with all other civilized individuals. In keeping with visual values, the individual separates himself from the object of his attention in order to gain perspective. Clarity, organization, proportion and straight lines are visual values. An oral approach to the object (of writing) is a kind of total immersion and a rejection of the distance which a visual approach requires. In writing we see a dreamlike state, lack of clarity, a breaking down of divisions and compartmentalization which are the hallmarks of visual culture. In terms of stylistics then, in oral writing (despite the oxymoron) we should expect the tactile, sensual, and ecstatic. Onomatopoeia, musicality, unexpected shifts of tone and rhythm, and references to sounds, smells, sensations and tactile feelings will predominate. Visual or literate writing emphasizes the equitone and a deliberate separation from the object of vision/writing. In Understanding Media, McLuhan notes the particular style which writers such as Addison and Steele developed specifically for the press. there occurs a change, not only in the physical appearance of the press, but also in the prose style of those writing for it. The first great change in style came in the eighteenth century, when the famous Tatler and Spectator of Addison and Steele discovered a new prose technique to match the form of the printed word. It was the technique of equitone. It consisted in maintaining a single level of tone and attitude to the reader throughout the entire composition. By this discovery, Addison and Steele brought written discourse into line with the printed word and away from the variety of pitch and tone of the spoken, and even the handwritten, word. (189) Visual man emphasizes the objectivity of reality. For oral man, reality is subjective. Visual man emphasizes chronology; he moves horizontally through time and space, and confuses sequence with logic. Oral man directs himself vertically, toward the cosmos. The emphasis is on spontaneity. Time hardly exists. In “literate” fiction there is an inevitable intertextuality with other written, visual forms. letters, newspapers, books, films, tv. Oral fiction stress the inter-oral. music, radio, live performance, and even tv becomes an oral medium once again, as characters “listen to” the television and bath in its warm light. As McLuhan argues in Understanding Media. The literate man or society develops the tremendous power of acting in any matter with considerable detachment from the feelings or emotional involvement that nonliterate man or society would experience. (83) In general then, this is reflected in “oral literature” as a strong emotional attachment, an immediacy, even ritual engagement in contrast to the distant, cooled-down, understated, ironic tendencies of visual literature.

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Another reason why it makes sense that we might call amoral literature “literary fiction.” First, because literary fiction tends towards the emotionally or culturally charged — and the amoral tends towards the purely rational, and therefore more objective. It makes sense that this be the case for any literature where there is some sort of intellectual or emotional interest. Second, because, in general, the aesthetic quality of the written word is based upon the use of language, not the use of the imagination. It would make sense that this would be true for literature if we are to take the aesthetic quality of the written word, and its relationship with the imagination as a guiding principle. Third, because while oral man focuses less on his personal emotions and social relationships than visual man, visual literature has less of a tendency to focus on the personal than literate literature. (184).